Production test

FAIR principles for research data

In modern scientific communication there are a number of technological transformations, due to the rapid development of computer technology, as well as the desire of the world scientific community to implement the principles of open science policy. Optimal online presentation of research data, both for research data and data related to the research process (for example, information on used scientific equipment, or information on funding) is an important issue that requires practical timely decisions and guardianship of the entire academic community. Today, more and more scientific stakeholders agree that key aspects of open science such as storage, management and exchange of research data must comply with the FAIR (Findability, Accessibility, Interoperability, Reusability) guidelines developed by professionals involved in integrating research data into electronic information systems in order to make this data accessible, compatible and such that it allows legal re-use and facilitates the search for information on the Internet.

The term FAIR was introduced at the Lorentz Seminar in 2014 and published in 2016.


F1. (Meta)data are assigned a globally unique and persistent identifier.

F2. Data are described with rich metadata.

F3. Metadata clearly and explicitly include the identifier of the data they describe.

F4. (Meta)data are registered or indexed in a searchable resource.


A1. (Meta)data are retrievable by their identifier using a standardised communications protocol.

A1.1 The protocol is open, free, and universally implementable.

A1.2 The protocol allows for an authentication and authorisation procedure, where necessary.

A2. Metadata are accessible, even when the data are no longer available.


I1. (Meta)data use a formal, accessible, shared, and broadly applicable language for knowledge representation.

I2. (Meta)data use vocabularies that follow FAIR principles.

I3. (Meta)data include qualified references to other (meta)data.


R1. (Meta)data are richly described with a plurality of accurate and relevant attributes.

R1.1. (Meta)data are released with a clear and accessible data usage license.

R1.2. (Meta)data are associated with detailed provenance.

R1.3. (Meta)data meet domain-relevant community standards.